By Aki-Hiro Sato
Applied data-centric social sciences objective to advance either technique and functional purposes of varied fields of social sciences and companies with wealthy facts. particularly, within the social sciences, an enormous volume of information on human actions should be important for realizing collective human nature. during this ebook, the writer introduces numerous mathematical thoughts for dealing with an enormous quantity of information and analysing collective human behaviour. The booklet is made from data-oriented research, with mathematical equipment and expressions used for facing info for a number of particular difficulties. the elemental philosophy underlying the ebook is that either mathematical and actual recommendations are made up our minds through the needs of information research. This philosophy is proven all through exemplar reviews of numerous fields in socio-economic platforms. From a data-centric viewpoint, the writer proposes an idea that could switch people’s minds and lead them to begin considering from the root of information. a number of pursuits underlie the chapters of the publication. the 1st is to explain mathematical and statistical equipment for info research, and towards that finish the writer delineates equipment with genuine info in each one bankruptcy. the second one is to discover a cyber-physical hyperlink among facts and data-generating mechanisms, as facts are constantly supplied by means of a few form of data-generating strategy within the actual global. The 3rd aim is to supply an impetus for the thoughts and technique set forth during this e-book to be utilized to socio-economic systems.
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Additional resources for Applied Data-Centric Social Sciences: Concepts, Data, Computation, and Theory
Jung classifies synchronicity into three forms: • The coincidence of a certain psychic content with a corresponding objective process which is perceived to take place simultaneously. • The coincidence of a subjective psychic state with a phantasm (dream or vision) which later turns out to be a more or less faithful reflection of a synchronistic objective event that took place more or less simultaneously, but at a distance. • The same, expect that the event perceived takes place in the future and is represented in the present only by a phantasm that corresponds to it.
This is one of hard problems when we analyse data with standard codes. 3 Understanding the World from Data How can we understand the world from data? We have two types of understanding: • qualitative understanding • quantitative understanding If we can change our behaviour through decision-making from the results of investigation, then our investigation turns out to be meaningful. If not, it is meaningless. Roughly speaking, we often use four types of descriptions of data: • • • • time series spatial description network representation (relationship) text To analyse these data, we may employ: • • • • time series analysis spatial analysis network analysis natural language processing Of course, we can use combination of these methods in data analysis.
Thus, data is provided with an explanation of symbols. When we want to analyse data, we also carefully read the definition of a sequence of symbols describing the data and their explanation. This is defined as a database schema in a data management system in general. The formal definition of database schema is a set of formulae (sentences) called integrity constraints, which are imposed on a database. Normally, a conceptual schema provides meanings of symbols in the real world. 2 Example of ISO 3166-1 Country name Alpha-2 Alpha-3 Numeric Australia Canada China Germany Japan Republic of Korea Netherlands Poland Singapore Switzerland United Kingdom United States AU CA CN DE JP KR NL PL SG CH GB US AUS CAN CHN DEU JPN KOR NLD POL SGP CHE GBR USA 036 124 156 276 392 410 528 616 702 756 826 840 Three types of country codes are defined To avoid confusion among different coding systems, standards of codes have already been defined.